This work examines different security discourses in contemporary Southeast Asia, and analyzes the human security norm in the region. As opposed to the state-centric security approach, human security focuses on ‘human-centred’ approach as a paradigm shift. The book argues that comprehensive security is not adequate in addressing the real essence of human security. The book particularly explores how and why state and non-state actors respond to this new emerging norm of human security and ASEAN and Myanmar are taken as case studies as state actors, and ASEAN People’s Assembly as non-state actor reflecting different responses. Particularly, it is human rights issue where contrasting perspectives are usually exposed. The book also analyses the debates about universalism and cultural relativism from human security perspectives. The book concludes that while human rights should be taken into account and looked at from specific cultural and historical backgrounds, ‘Asian values’ should not be extremely used as a justification for human rights violations. At the same time, human rights should not be exclusively politicized which might hinder the pursuit of human security in Southeast Asia.

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